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The Many Benefits Of Using Online Psychics

online psychics | Angels Within

There are individuals in the world called psychics, people that have an innate ability to read into the future of individuals they speak with. You have probably seen them with businesses in your city, and they are also on the web. People often contact these professionals because of their natural ability to tap into their lifestream to help them make important choices. There are many advantages to using psychics that are on the web. They might be able to help you understand more about yourself, or address life choices that you must make right now.


Here are a few of the many benefits you will receive by working with online psychics.


What Do Psychics Do?

Psychics are able to connect with people on an energetic level. There is the belief that we are all living lives that may be somewhat predestined. This is often referred to as the path of our life, and this path often has many different potential directions. Making the right choices, and adhering to our path of heart, is the key to finding success and happiness in life. People also referred to our path of heart as our purpose, the reason that we were incarnated into existence. A psychic is able to sense these potential decisions that must be made. After speaking with you, they will be able to experience feelings, or sometimes see visions, of things that may occur based upon choices that you will make. Those that are highly intuitive can be extremely accurate in understanding who you are, and what choices will likely lead to a life that is more positive and abundant.


How Do You Find Online Psychics?

Psychics that are on the web are extremely easy to find. When you search for psychics, you will be directed to businesses that might be in your area. You will also see listings for companies that have many different psychics to choose from. You can select them based upon the feedback they have received from prior customers. In most cases, they will give an initial reading for free, one that will only last for a few minutes. This allows people to determine if this is the right psychic for them, and many of them have helped hundreds or thousands of people.

How To Choose The Right Psychic For You

Choosing a psychic is also something that is somewhat intuitive. Although they may have great feedback, you still need to feel comfortable about the one that will do your reading. The initial free consultation will allow you to determine whether or not you are confident that this person will be able to help you. Once you have had your psychic reading, you can then assess the information they have provided you with. The more accurate it is, the more likely it will be, that you will use them for future psychic readings. Therefore, selecting a psychic is based on both empirical information that you see on their website, and your subjective opinion of this individual. The true test, however, is to actually work with one of them to see how they can help you change your life for the better.


What Type Of Information Will They Provide You With?

When you meet with the psychics online, it’s typically over Skype or something similar so that you can both see and hear them. You do not have to be physically in a room with a psychic in order to have them do a reading. You may also opt for a phone reading where you will simply talk with these individuals that can help you with decisions you need to make. You can take notes, or you may also receive a transcript of the entire psychic reading, so that you can use this for reference. This information may address issues in your life relating to career choices, relationships, or radical decisions that you are thinking about making. Regardless of the topic, a psychic will be able to read into your life path, and provide you with information that can help you.


In most cases, your initial inclination when choosing a psychic tends to be the right one. Within a few minutes of speaking with a psychic, you can tell whether or not they will provide you with good information. Some people are simply more naturally adept, capable of experiencing your lifestream, and will be able to see things much more clearly.

If you would like to use one of the many online psychics that are available, simply search for them on the web, and schedule an initial consultation.

Matchmaker vs. Online Dating

Match Making Agency | Vital Partners

As expert matchmakers in Sydney, we get the same question on rotation – why would I use a matchmaker as opposed to online dating sites? In today’s blog post, we’re going to give you our top reasons why singles choose matchmakers instead of hopping or searching online to meet their ideal partner.

Matchmakers are one of the oldest profession who has been around for centuries and was commonly used across the world. The basic concept of matchmaking back in the day consists of having someone introduce to you, your potential life partner – in some cases, you have the option to get to know them, however, in more traditional cultures, the wedding is set in stone way before you meet the person.

In the more modern sense of the word, Vital Partners carries on a similar concept, however, have made it easier and, more convenient so you don’t go on blind dates with a random stranger – awkward.


When you sign up for an online dating website or app, you’re merely a number that appears on their database. There is no sense of personalisation and you are essentially getting matched by a computer robot. A matchmaking agency is a complete opposite. The experts here at Vital Partners meet with all potential clients for a consultation process so they are well informed on what to expect. The consultation itself is of no charge nor obligation – our expert consultants physically see clients face to face, hear their voices and have a conversation with them to find out more about who they are and what they look in their ideal partner. Vital consultants will remember you by name, and with your face and your personality in mind, your Matchmaker is able to mentally link you up to a potential partner they have met.


How many times have you had a horrible blind date? Or just a horrible date in general? It happens to the best of us. This probably results in a night out with your friends, drinking and being miserable the next day – there is definitely emotional support, but no guidance on where you went wrong and how to approach and improve on an issue next time you’re on a date.

Your Vital Angels are experts in love. They’re able to guide you every step of the way – before your date and after your date. They are genuinely interested in how things went with you and your date and will happily offer words of wisdom for your second date. If things didn’t go as planned, they’ll support you emotionally and will always aim to lead you the right way – no booze necessary.


After going on a blind Tinder date, you’ll never really know how well or poorly you did on the date. Your only way of knowing is if they ask you on another date, but what happens when they don’t? You sit there wondering “What did I do that made them not want a second date?”

With an expert matchmaker by your side, you can receive feedback if you like.   This is because the Vital Angels speak to both sides after a date, this way you are able to receive feedback on how it all went.- an important information you could use to your advantage on your next night out.


As mentioned previously, Vital matchmakers meet their clients face to face so they know you – exist. With online dating, you’ll never really know who you’re talking to. Your matchmakers ensure you know who you’ll be going on a date with and they know too. Remember that your safety is more important than meeting someone online like a Tinder date.

Your details will not be broadcast online which means none of your details is there for everyone to see. Our matchmaking process is offline, this means your information is all confidential.


The reason you hire a matchmaker is so they can go out and do the necessary work to ensure you don’t meet people who are only after a fling or a one night stand. The details you get are up to date. Your matchmaker then searches through their database and for a suitable match based on yours and your potential partner’s preferences. Vital Partners believes there is someone out there for everybody and that’s why they are passionate about getting singles together. Your Vital Matchmakers are always more than happy to do the extra mile and answer any questions you may have about your potential match prior to meeting Your Vital Matchmaker certainly believes your happiness is a reflection of their satisfaction and of course everyone deserves to love and be loved.


Source: Courtesy of Vital Partners, Dating Site Sydney


Why Is It a Good Idea to Purchase a Wedding Ring Online?

Wedding Ring Online | Ziba & Co

If you’re getting married, choosing the right wedding ring to wear is important. It’s a ring you’ll likely wear on your finger for the rest of your life. Because it’s a valuable, timeless piece that has such a significant meaning to it, you need to make sure you’re choosing a ring you love and will continue to love forever.

If you’ve tried looking at various shops and have yet to find any wedding rings that fit your specific style or budget, looking online is worth a shot because you may just find the perfect ring.


It’s Easy to Compare the Cost of Different Rings

When you’re working with a budget, you don’t want to overspend on a ring, but you still want to make sure you’re getting something you’ll love to wear. The great thing about buying wedding rings online is that it’s a lot easier for you to compare the cost of different options because you can take your time. You don’t have a salesperson following you around the store while trying to sell you on one of the most expensive pieces they have available.

Wedding ring | Ziba & Co.

Because you’re in the comfort of your home, you can browse through various websites and even use some of the search engines to compare a lot of the different options that are available. You don’t have to feel like you’re being rushed to pick the first thing you find because you don’t have to go anywhere. You’re able to simply browse through the different types of wedding rings at your own leisure while getting a feel for how much they’re going to cost. In fact, you can even set a price range on different sites to ensure you’re not wasting any of your time looking at rings that cost way more than you’d like to spend.

You May Have Access to More Options

Not everyone has the same taste in wedding rings. While some people insist on having diamonds on their rings, other people may not be as picky, so it’s always good to be able to look at a variety of different rings. However, traditional stores might not always have the specific variety you’re looking forward to seeing. The good news is that when you look online for a wedding ring, you’ll find thousands of different options, many of which are much different from one another.


While searching online, you may find various wedding rings with decorative gemstones, pearls, and other embellishments that stand out to you. While you can choose something unique or different, you’ll still be able to find plenty of traditional wedding rings with sparkling diamonds on them as well. You may even find diamonds in different colors, including shades of pink, blue, or black. Once you have a chance to see what is out there, you should have a better idea of what you’d like to purchase.


You’ll Find an Affordable Option

No matter the type of ring you’d like to get, it should be possible for you to find one that falls within your ideal price range because online stores are often competing with one another to get more business. If they’re trying to get your business, they may be offering special deals and discounts that could help you get the ring for even less than you originally anticipated. Consider looking around online to find places that are having sales on jewelry because then you might find something that stands out to you and is listed at a price you can afford.


Shopping for a wedding ring may seem like a tedious task because you do want to make sure you’re purchasing a ring you’ll love to wear for the rest of your life. Because it’s so important to find a piece that matches your personality, looks beautiful, and fits within your price range, it’s a good idea to start shopping around for wedding rings online. There is such an impressive selection of beautiful wedding rings available online, all of which are available at different prices. If you take the time to look around, sort through the options, and compare the cost of each ring you’re interested in getting, you may soon find the perfect wedding ring for you.

8 Tips for Improving Your Readings with a Psychic Medium in Australia

Angels Within Melbourne | Psychic Readings

Hi everybody. Bob Olson here from Afterlife TV. We’re located at afterlifetv.com. Today I want to talk to you about eight ways to improve your readings with a psychic or a medium. Now, some of these might seem a little logical, a little obvious, but they’re not obvious for everybody because I’ve seen people violate every single one of these and ruin their readings as a result.

1) The first one I just want to talk about seems the most obvious

Don’t show up to your reading intoxicated or even hung over, whether you’re on some kind of sleeping pills or some kind of drug or even alcohol. I know that people get nervous about readings sometimes, so they might have a drink or two because of it. I don’t recommend it.

Here’s the thing. I had a friend who got a reading with a psychic medium on my list, on bestpsychicmediums.com. When she made the appointment, he answered the phone, was making the appointment, and her mother was coming through very loud and clear to the psychic medium. He gave her a few messages because it was so clear but then made the appointment for the following week.

When she had the appointment, the night before she was so nervous about her reading that she drank a bottle of wine the night before, so the next morning she was pretty hung over. She’s a little girl, so a bottle of wine was a lot for her, pretty hung over. As a result, the connection that the medium was having with the mother was nowhere near the clarity that he had had the week before.

Who really knows why, but somehow the hangover that this girl, my friend, was having was affecting the clarity of the signal, the connection, between the medium and her mother in spirit. So something you want to be aware of and watch out for.

2) You want to get into a relaxed state.

Now, let’s just say you get a reading with someone in person. So you’re going to the medium’s office and you’re dealing with rush-hour traffic. You’re all frazzled and fried because people are honking at you and a little bit of road rage there or something. You show up at the reading. You’re like shaking and upset.

That’s not the best way to start a reading. Not only is it going to affect the medium, but it’s going to affect you. You’re not going to be able to remember the reading as well. You’re going to end up with what we call psychic amnesia. The medium is going to be giving you messages from spirit, and you’re not going to recognize some of those messages. Psychic amnesia is very common, and it’s so classic. It’s funny sometimes that the medium will be saying something like, “Your loved one in spirit here is saying that you have three children,” and you don’t even know that you have three children. You’re like, “What? No, no, that doesn’t make sense.” Your friend who is with you is going, “You have three children.”

This actually happens all the time, so you want to be in a relaxed state. If you have to drive through traffic, make sure you get there early, sit in your car quietly, listen to some classical music, whatever it takes. If it’s a phone reading, at least 15 minutes before the reading sit in a quiet room. If you want to listen to some quiet, nice, soothing music, go ahead and do that. Otherwise, just sit, pay attention to your breathing, and just get ready for the reading in that way. It will make all the difference.

3) Don’t make deals with your spirits.

This works against you. It doesn’t work in any positive way for your loved ones in spirit. A lot of people do this. They say, look, I’m going to go to this reading, and as long as you say something about the house on the lake or something about my nickname Jujube; whatever it may be, if you ask your loved one in spirit that you will trust that this medium is really connecting with them as long as they say a certain thing, you’re already setting yourself up for failure.

Because let me just explain to you how this works. The medium is connecting with spirit, and they don’t just get one message at a time. It’s not like me communicating with you where we get on the telephone and you say something, then I say something. A lot of messages are coming through all at once to the medium. They’re seeing things in their mind’s eye. They might be sort of hearing something. They’re feeling things, all the different clair abilities.

So they’re getting messages in various ways, and they pick and choose which messages they’re going to pass on. You never know which ones they’re going to be. Well, your loved one in spirit might be talking about the house on the lake, but at the same time they’re getting other messages; so the medium might not choose the house on the lake message to give you. That’s not your loved one in spirit’s fault. It’s just that’s the choice that the medium made.

So don’t set them up for failure, or don’t set yourself up for failure. Just because that message didn’t come through doesn’t mean it wasn’t really your loved one in spirit. You can’t make deals. Even if before someone dies you make a deal like that, just don’t set yourself up in that way.

4) We use this phrase all the time: Don’t feed the medium.

What it really means is that you don’t want to give information to the medium. The best thing to do when you get a reading is just keep your lips sealed. The medium will ask you if you are recognizing or acknowledging any of these messages.

Do these messages make sense? You can say yes, no, or maybe. Yes, that makes sense. No, it doesn’t make sense to me; please give me some more information. Or maybe, maybe it makes sense, but unless you give me some more I’m not really going to know. Yes, no, or maybe is really the only thing that you should be saying to them.

I can’t tell you, though, how many times people get readings with a medium and they’re telling them all sorts of things that they shouldn’t be because the medium should be giving them the messages, in this case, you. So if you have an uncle who was a firefighter who died to put out a fire, saving some lives, so he died on the job; if you tell the medium this before the medium has an opportunity to tell you this information, it really takes away from the reading that you’re going to have because these are the kinds of messages that are going to come through for you.

The medium is going to say, I have someone here who’s a firefighter or a fireman or whatever. Then later they’re going to try to tell you how that person passed, and they’re going to say, they died in a fire. They might even be able to give you the circumstances under which that happened. They were saving someone at the time, and they put their life on the line. They passed as a result. They’re a real hero.

If you give them this information, they’re not going to be able to give it to you. So don’t feed the medium anything. Don’t tell them anything. Let them tell you.

5) Don’t force fit messages.

A common example is they say, I have a little, white dog that’s coming through. I see a little, white dog. You say something like, well, I had a white cat. That’s not the same. I’ve heard even worse. Well, I had a black cat when they were talking about a white dog.

People really try to force fit a message. You’ll find that you’re doing this because you want to try to help the medium out. If you’re a nice person, you tend to want to help make things fit. So you get the messages kind of right but not exactly, so you’re like trying to make it fit. Don’t try to make messages fit. If it doesn’t make sense, just tell the medium, no, it’s not really making sense. So don’t force fit messages.

6) If nothing’s making sense, stop the medium.

Just say, hold on. I need to let you know that none of these messages are making sense. Because there’s so much that can happen; sometimes it might be that the message is for somebody else in your house. It could be with the friend that you’re with. It could be the messages are for the next caller. You don’t know what the circumstances are, but if none of the messages are making sense you can’t just let that medium go on and on and on.

I actually got an email from somebody who said to me she had a two-hour reading and nothing made sense. I emailed back, “Why didn’t you tell the medium anytime within those two hours that nothing was making sense?” It’s best if you do it within the first 10 or 15 minutes. She’s like, “I didn’t want to interrupt. I didn’t want to be rude.” No, interrupt. You don’t have to be rude. You can be kind about it. You can just let them know, sorry, this isn’t working; this isn’t making any sense.

Angels Within Australia | Psychic ReadingsYou should do it in the first five or six or seven minutes if nothing’s making sense. Because if all you have is a half-hour reading and you let 15 or 20 minutes go before you let them know that so far none of the messages you’ve given me make any sense, now you’ve got to deal with you’ve just let them talk for 20 minutes and how are they going to give you a refund. I mean it really messes things up.

Make it easy on them from the beginning, and they might go, you know what? I’m not getting anything for you today. Let’s reschedule this and do this another time. Who knows why, for some reason I’m connecting with somebody else, and this person in spirit is a really strong communicator. For some reason these messages are the ones that are coming through. Let’s just do this at another time. You make it easy for them if you stop them early on. So stop them.

In the same way, you want to be honest both in your words and in your body language. Let me give you an example of what I mean by that. I was at a medium demonstration, a medium demonstration being a psychic medium’s on stage. He’s giving random readings to audience members who are there at that event and would say, I’ve got somebody coming through. It’s this person. They would describe what they look like or what their name is or how they died. Somebody would pick up that message and raise their hand. Yeah, that sounds like that’s for me. They would give that person a reading.

Well, I had a friend who was at one of these demonstrations and was getting a reading. All the messages were clearly for him. They all made sense until about halfway through the reading. All of the sudden it took a turn. Now, this is my friend, so I knew the messages were accurate at the beginning. Then I knew that the messages were not. Well, my friend, who just is a really nice guy and doesn’t want to make anybody feel bad or look bad, instead of stopping the medium and telling him, no, something took a turn here, none of these messages are making sense, he just sat there nodding, nodding, like he was acknowledging that he understood everything that was being said.

This medium, who was excellent because he doesn’t ask any questions, he just gives the messages. He does look to your body language to recognize whether or not any of it is making sense to you. My friend’s sitting there nodding like it’s all making sense. None of it was. He later admitted that, yeah, about halfway through all of the sudden it wasn’t making any more sense.

Another woman came up to me later and said, “Halfway through his reading, I knew all the messages were for me. I knew they were for me.” She didn’t want to interrupt. The medium, he even felt as though the reading had gone in a different direction. But because my friend was nodding, he was confused and he just kept going with that one person. You see, so be honest in your words and in your body language if you’re getting an in-person reading with somebody.

7) The last thing I just want to talk about is skepticism.

You need to keep an open mind with these things. Skepticism is good. There’s something that we all like to refer to as a healthy skepticism. I started off as a skeptic, a cynical skeptic, which I’m not proud of. I was a cynic. But I was open-minded enough to allow the messages to come through.

So what I’m trying to say is look for the real compelling, the real convincing evidence that comes through. So when a medium is giving you a message that there’s no way that they could possibly know, it’s best if the medium’s a stranger to you because there’s no way. Or even if you’re getting a Psychic Readings, if that psychic is a stranger to you, there’s no way they could know this stuff about you that they’re telling you.

There’s no way they could know this stuff about your loved one in spirit if the messages are coming through and this person’s a stranger to you. They’re telling you about his personality, say your father’s personality in spirit, what he did for work, his hobbies, how he died, all this kind of incredible evidence. A lot of times there will be names and dates and places.

So if this person is a stranger to you and they’re giving you this kind of evidence and some of the messages that come through don’t make sense or they’re just outright wrong, don’t throw all the rest of it away just because some of it was wrong. Keep an open mind. That’s the way I look at the evidence. If some of it is really convincing, really compelling, like accurate, undeniable, I will give a little more benefit to the doubt for the other messages that maybe I’m just a little unsure about or maybe they’re a little vaguer. I’ll give them the benefit of the doubt because all the other messages were so accurate.

8) I want to talk a little bit about misses because if you are skeptical you often count the hits and the misses.

Oh, he got that wrong. He got that wrong. He got that wrong. Then we count the hits. Yeah, okay, okay, that one’s right, but he got three wrong. So you know what? Even though he got seven things right, seven hits, three misses, I’m just going to discard the whole reading.

Well, the reality is that in most readings there are going to be some misses. There is going to be some stuff that is wrong. Really, what you want to pay attention to is the hits, but the quality hits, the most compelling, the most convincing hits. What kind of evidence came through? Pay attention to that. That’s where the real magic is when you’re getting a good reading.

But there are three types of misses that I want to just point out. The first type of miss, the first category of misses that I want to talk about is what I call flat-out wrong misses. It’s just flat-out wrong. So the medium says to you, I think I have your mother in spirit, but your mother’s alive. So no, that’s just flat-out wrong. My mother is not in spirit. My mother’s still here, all right, flat-out wrong.

The second category of misses is technically wrong. This is when the medium might say, your father is showing me that he was a police officer. Technically, though, your father might have been a security guard or might have been an MP in the military, a military police or something like that.

He’s getting it technically wrong, but you recognize that he’s seeing him in some kind of a uniform. He’s just got it technically wrong, but you know he’s got the gist of it. You know he’s connected with your father. You know he’s seeing your father with some kind of uniform. He’s just mixing up the type of uniform it is. That’s technically wrong.

The third category is semantically wrong. I actually saw this in a medium demonstration. The medium was giving messages about someone who was coming through and was saying that it was a male energy that was coming through. The fact was it was the woman in the audience’s mother. She was the one who was coming through. She had a masculine energy. She wasn’t a male energy, meaning she wasn’t a man, but she had a masculine energy.

The person getting the reading just thought the medium was all wrong and just got it all mixed up because she was thinking he was saying a male was coming through. He messed it up semantically. It was just wrong word choice. He should’ve said it was a masculine energy because the reality was this woman’s mother in spirit now actually had a masculine energy and that was true. So that was semantically wrong. He was just using the wrong words.

So flat-out wrong is flat-out wrong. If it’s wrong, it’s wrong. You want to acknowledge that and tell the medium that it doesn’t make any sense to you. But if it’s technically wrong or semantically wrong, give them a little leeway with that because you know the message that’s coming through is sort of right. You know chances are they really did connect with your loved one in spirit. They’re just sort of misinterpreting some of the stuff that they’re seeing or hearing or feeling.

These are just tips, eight tips for improving your readings with a psychic or medium. I hope they’re helpful for you. Thanks.

Source: Courtesy of afterlifetv.com


Reasons Why High Quality Professional Photography Will Help Your Business Grow

Professional Photography | Joseph Byford Photography

If you have not been able to generate a substantial profit with your professional photography business, it could be that you have not defined yourself in a noticeable way. As you can imagine, especially in large cities, there is a multitude of businesses that offer photography services. There are those that will do portraits, weddings, class pictures, and also those that are hired for nature photography. These are all viable ways to generate money with your photography equipment, but to succeed, you have to get noticed. To do this, you must define yourself in a way that is different, or more compelling, than your competitors.

Here are a few ways that you can take your professional photography business to a higher level.

Why Branding Your Business Is So Important

When people hear the word branding, in relationship to businesses, they often think about a logo. They are convinced that by creating a logo that is unique that this will somehow help to find their business in a significant way. Unfortunately, a business is not going to succeed merely because your logo is recognizable. You also have to define your photography company in a way that is different from all of the others. It is for this reason, in association with your logo, that you can take your business to higher levels of success. This begins with creating a website that can showcase some of your best work.

Why A Website Is So Important

Most of the people that search for photographers will use the Internet. They will go to the search engines, looking for the perfect photographer that can help them with the project. When people arrive, you only have about eight seconds to captivate them, motivating them to stay and see what you have to offer. It is because human beings are visual creatures that you should use some of your most impactful and bright examples of a photography business. This is true whether they are finding you on the search engines, or if you are also advertising using printed materials.


Showcase Your Products And Packages

You need to have packages that are front and center when people arrive at your website. For example, if you are specializing in taking pictures of food, or perhaps apparel, this should be part of your marketing materials. Even if your business is relatively new to the market, high-quality images are going to convince people that find you that you are a professional with many years of experience. You can actually outclass rivals and competitors by doing this, even if they have been in business for many more years than you. Adding testimonials for these packages is also helpful, as well as creating a social media account. All of this should showcase not only what you are able to do, but should also emphasize your personality.

Quality Professional Photography | Joseph Byford Photography

Why Showcasing Your Personality Also Helps

Your personality should come through with everything that you do. This includes the text that you use on your website as you are discussing your services to the marketing materials that you are using. You need to make a personal connection with the people that may become long-term customers. There should be an About Us page on your website that will talk about who you are and what your background is. This should be connected directly to your social media account so that you can get viral traffic from those that will share your images. This will lead to further opportunities for people that you may have never heard of before. All of these efforts will help you stand out in the crowd of the many photographers in your area, allowing you to generate more sales.


Although your skills as a professional photographer are the key to your success, you will not have any business at all without using these marketing strategies. People need to connect with you on a personal level which is not possible without a website, social media page, and your best images front and center. You need to create an image in the mind of those that come to your website that you are the exact professional that they need. They will make this determination on their own because of your marketing efforts. Professional photography can be a very lucrative profession, but you need to do this the right way. By interacting with people in this manner, you will automatically create a public persona that will be positive, instantly building your credibility. Customers and visitors alike will begin to share your business across the Internet, helping you to achieve high levels of success with your photography business.



Source: Courtesy of Joseph Byford Photography


What are Electrostatic Discharge common EMC solutions?

Common Solutions | EMC Bayswater

In this article, EMC Bayswater discusses typical electrostatic discharge (ESD) problems and common solutions. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a common phenomenon that is encountered on an everyday basis by many of us. It is the sudden flow of electrical energy between two objects of differing electrical potential (or charge).

ESD is essentially a lightning bolt on a very small scale and, like a lightning bolt, the electrical energy will try to find a low impedance path to ground in order to equalize the electrical potential. Anybody who has walked across a carpeted floor and touched a metal doorknob may have felt or even seen a small spark jump from their hand to the metal doorknob.

Another very common occurrence is getting out of your car and touching a grounded path. It is worth noting that the human body is only sensitive to electrostatic discharges greater than around 2000-3000 Volts but higher voltages can easily be generated in real life. While in most cases this kind of phenomenon is not hazardous to humans aside from a surprise jolt and a little discomfort, our electronic devices can be affected in more severe ways. The purpose of electrostatic discharge testing of electrical products is to evaluate their ability to withstand these events.

Electrostatic Discharge | EMC Bayswater

When an electrostatic discharge current travels through an electronic device it will try to find a low impedance path to ground. While in some cases this may be through the chassis of the device, it is not at all uncommon for the current to travel through sensitive electronic circuitry with enough energy to permanently damage components such as Integrated Circuits (ICs), transistors, diodes in some cases passive components such as high precision resistors. An electrostatic discharge can also create local but intense electromagnetic fields which may couple into nearby circuitry and disrupt signals. Some common ways to mitigate the effects of electrostatic discharge phenomena include:

  • Insulation
  • Proper grounding
  • Suppression/filtering
  • Galvanic isolation
  • Firmware


A common and effective way to minimize the effects of ESD on a device is to stop discharges from occurring in the first place. Using plastic with a high breakdown voltage and sufficient spacing between touchable points and conductors may provide enough insulation to prevent an ESD event from occurring.

Insulation is effective on weak points such as switches, LEDs, rotary controllers, displays and connector shields usually where the enclosure integrity is jeopardized. In some cases, entire circuits or parts of circuits can be encapsulated in a potting compound such as a resin or silicone.

Proper Grounding

Unlike insulation, which provides no path for ESD currents, proper grounding allows for a low impedance path to ground. Metallic connector shields and screws should have a low impedance connection to the metallic chassis which in turn should be connected to the protective earth or functional earth via a low impedance connection.

This allows the electrical energy to find a path to the ground without traveling through sensitive circuitry. This can be complex if the product is double insulated or uses no earth arrangement but is in a system with multiple other earth paths to ground i.e. via coaxial shields to other equipment.

Spark Gap/Gas Discharge Tubes (GDT)

Gas discharge tubes and other spark gap devices act as transient suppression devices by conducting electrical currents to ground, effectively creating a short circuit. In the case of a high-voltage spike, the normally non-conductive gasses (or air in the case of a simple spark gap with exposed electrodes) become ionized allowing for electrical current to be conducted through the gap between the terminals of the device.

GDTs take a relatively long time to trigger compared to other transient voltage suppressors. It is not uncommon for a GDT or sparks gap to allow pulses of 500V or more to pass through unsuppressed before the current is conducted to ground via the ionized gas/air between electrodes. Gas Discharge Tubes are more commonly used in slower rise time surge transients such as an AC mains surge.


ESD events can be mitigated using transients suppression components and/or filter networks. Transient suppression components include, but are not limited to Transient voltage suppression (TVS) diodes, capacitors, variable resistors/voltage-dependent resistors (varistors/VDR) and filter networks.

These components work by reacting to sudden over-voltage conditions and should be placed as close as possible to the point of ESD current entry rather than the circuit (or part of the circuit) that is being protected.

Galvanic Isolation

Galvanic isolation is the separation of electrical circuits that allow for signals to pass through but stray currents are eliminated. Common methods of achieving galvanic isolation include but are not limited to Transformers (coupled inductively/magnetically), optoisolators (coupled photo-electrically), capacitors (blocks DC but allows AC to pass) and hall-effect sensors (coupled inductively/magnetically).


In some cases, a change in the firmware of a device is sufficient enough to allow it to self-recover after an ESD event. Where a device’s processor crashes (due to an ESD event) a watchdog timer (WDT) will reset the processor.

This can essentially bring it back to an original state making the malfunction in operation self-recoverable. In other cases, the firmware may help stop the device from malfunctioning.

A parasitic reset (when the reset pin of the processor erroneously reads high due to the ESD event) or blocked status can be managed by the firmware. Often this kind of solution is used in conjunction with filters which differentiate valid signals from short ESD events.

When designing a circuit it is important to keep these different techniques in mind. Different kinds of devices and circuit layouts will benefit from different techniques and often there is more than one solution to the problem.

More than often, multiple electrostatic mitigation techniques will be required in order to achieve EMC Compliance during electrostatic discharge testing.


Source: Courtesy of EMC Bayswater Melbourne, Australia