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What are Electrostatic Discharge common EMC solutions?

Common Solutions | EMC Bayswater

In this article, EMC Bayswater discusses typical electrostatic discharge (ESD) problems and common solutions. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a common phenomenon that is encountered on an everyday basis by many of us. It is the sudden flow of electrical energy between two objects of differing electrical potential (or charge).

ESD is essentially a lightning bolt on a very small scale and, like a lightning bolt, the electrical energy will try to find a low impedance path to ground in order to equalize the electrical potential. Anybody who has walked across a carpeted floor and touched a metal doorknob may have felt or even seen a small spark jump from their hand to the metal doorknob.

Another very common occurrence is getting out of your car and touching a grounded path. It is worth noting that the human body is only sensitive to electrostatic discharges greater than around 2000-3000 Volts but higher voltages can easily be generated in real life. While in most cases this kind of phenomenon is not hazardous to humans aside from a surprise jolt and a little discomfort, our electronic devices can be affected in more severe ways. The purpose of electrostatic discharge testing of electrical products is to evaluate their ability to withstand these events.

Electrostatic Discharge | EMC Bayswater

When an electrostatic discharge current travels through an electronic device it will try to find a low impedance path to ground. While in some cases this may be through the chassis of the device, it is not at all uncommon for the current to travel through sensitive electronic circuitry with enough energy to permanently damage components such as Integrated Circuits (ICs), transistors, diodes in some cases passive components such as high precision resistors. An electrostatic discharge can also create local but intense electromagnetic fields which may couple into nearby circuitry and disrupt signals. Some common ways to mitigate the effects of electrostatic discharge phenomena include:

  • Insulation
  • Proper grounding
  • Suppression/filtering
  • Galvanic isolation
  • Firmware

Insulation

A common and effective way to minimize the effects of ESD on a device is to stop discharges from occurring in the first place. Using plastic with a high breakdown voltage and sufficient spacing between touchable points and conductors may provide enough insulation to prevent an ESD event from occurring.

Insulation is effective on weak points such as switches, LEDs, rotary controllers, displays and connector shields usually where the enclosure integrity is jeopardized. In some cases, entire circuits or parts of circuits can be encapsulated in a potting compound such as a resin or silicone.

Proper Grounding

Unlike insulation, which provides no path for ESD currents, proper grounding allows for a low impedance path to ground. Metallic connector shields and screws should have a low impedance connection to the metallic chassis which in turn should be connected to the protective earth or functional earth via a low impedance connection.

This allows the electrical energy to find a path to the ground without traveling through sensitive circuitry. This can be complex if the product is double insulated or uses no earth arrangement but is in a system with multiple other earth paths to ground i.e. via coaxial shields to other equipment.

Spark Gap/Gas Discharge Tubes (GDT)

Gas discharge tubes and other spark gap devices act as transient suppression devices by conducting electrical currents to ground, effectively creating a short circuit. In the case of a high-voltage spike, the normally non-conductive gasses (or air in the case of a simple spark gap with exposed electrodes) become ionized allowing for electrical current to be conducted through the gap between the terminals of the device.

GDTs take a relatively long time to trigger compared to other transient voltage suppressors. It is not uncommon for a GDT or sparks gap to allow pulses of 500V or more to pass through unsuppressed before the current is conducted to ground via the ionized gas/air between electrodes. Gas Discharge Tubes are more commonly used in slower rise time surge transients such as an AC mains surge.

Suppression/Filtering

ESD events can be mitigated using transients suppression components and/or filter networks. Transient suppression components include, but are not limited to Transient voltage suppression (TVS) diodes, capacitors, variable resistors/voltage-dependent resistors (varistors/VDR) and filter networks.

These components work by reacting to sudden over-voltage conditions and should be placed as close as possible to the point of ESD current entry rather than the circuit (or part of the circuit) that is being protected.

Galvanic Isolation

Galvanic isolation is the separation of electrical circuits that allow for signals to pass through but stray currents are eliminated. Common methods of achieving galvanic isolation include but are not limited to Transformers (coupled inductively/magnetically), optoisolators (coupled photo-electrically), capacitors (blocks DC but allows AC to pass) and hall-effect sensors (coupled inductively/magnetically).

Firmware

In some cases, a change in the firmware of a device is sufficient enough to allow it to self-recover after an ESD event. Where a device’s processor crashes (due to an ESD event) a watchdog timer (WDT) will reset the processor.

This can essentially bring it back to an original state making the malfunction in operation self-recoverable. In other cases, the firmware may help stop the device from malfunctioning.

A parasitic reset (when the reset pin of the processor erroneously reads high due to the ESD event) or blocked status can be managed by the firmware. Often this kind of solution is used in conjunction with filters which differentiate valid signals from short ESD events.

When designing a circuit it is important to keep these different techniques in mind. Different kinds of devices and circuit layouts will benefit from different techniques and often there is more than one solution to the problem.

More than often, multiple electrostatic mitigation techniques will be required in order to achieve EMC Compliance during electrostatic discharge testing.

 

Source: Courtesy of EMC Bayswater Melbourne, Australia

 

How To Use Your Concrete Grinding Tools

Concrete Cutting Melbourne | Vic Sawing

Concrete floors have become extremely popular over the years and have become more common in commercial and residential settings. One of the main attractions of this floor type is that it does not require a lot of maintenance, but it does require daily cleaning and care to retain its shine. Polished concrete is achieved using a specialized machine that strips the old and soiled concrete to unearth a shiny and new layer. To achieve polished concrete, concrete grinding is necessary, and this necessitates the correct equipment. Here are the different grinder types that can assist you in grinding your own concrete floors.

Concrete Grinding Tool Types

  1. Hand-Held Grinders

These grinders are smaller and mainly used for grinding work that is minor. These tools are dustless with one head and measure between 5 to 7-inches in diameter. This tool is versatile and quite common and mainly used for domestic purposes. You can also use a hand-held grinder to remove irregularities or paint from your concrete floors or surfaces. This tool is unable to take the place of the walk-behind machines that are mainly used to clean larger concrete sections.

  1. Multiple-Held Grinders

These grinders feature horizontally-rotating discs which perform a variety of tasks. One of the most important aspects of these grinders is there different attachments that can be attached according to your requirements. These attachments are numerous and designed to perform a variety of different applications.

  1. Dustless Grinders

These grinders come with dust covers that serve the purpose of discarding dust that collects inside the cloak. The grinders offer you a way to save time you would have spent cleaning and offer numerous features that allow you to perform tasks efficiently and gracefully.

Concrete Grinding Melbourne | Vic Sawing

Instructions On How To Grind Concrete

The grinding machines designed for this specific purpose come equipped with specialized disks that are embedded with diamond-bits that have the abilities to grind the concrete down and to achieve a desirable shine. This tool type makes use of polishing disks of a fine-grit to provide a smooth and sleek appeal to your floors.

To begin with, coarser grits are attached to the machine to drain-out flaws and minor stains. This tool prepares the floors for further cleaning and smoothing. Once this stage is completed, the process can take up to 3 to 4 passes to ready the floors for a final polish. These processes depend entirely on the concrete type. Certain concrete types achieve their best shine with less cleaning, while tougher concrete can take more counts to achieve a polished shine. The advanced stages of polishing can necessitate polishing disks that have finer grits of between 1800 to 3500 grits.

To begin with, start with 1800 grits polishing disk, and turn on your water hose to apply around a ½ inch of water across a 5-foot area. Switch off the water supply, followed by running your concrete grinder over the area until the water has completely dried up. Now move onto the next section of flooring until the entire area has been covered using the same methodology.

Once you have completed this step, first unplug your concrete appliance and attach a finer grit disk following the very same process as mentioned above to achieve the next level of shine and polish. Let the tool pass over the wet area and ensure the water has dried out which will leave the floor shiny and completely even. Follow the steps until you have successfully polished the entire area of flooring.

Switch off the machine again and now attach the 3500- grit polishing disks and follow the same steps again. It is important that you ensure that the floors are wet every time you use the different concrete-polishing tools. This last disk should provide the highest glossiest shine that you have been looking to achieve. Once the desired shine has been achieved, mop the area clean.

Dry And Wet Methods Of Concrete Grinding

Concrete grinding involves 2 different methods that include wet or dry. With the wet method, the use of water is needed in order to cool off the diamond-grits and to clean the dust that is created from the grinding process. For this method of grinding, the water serves the purpose of a type of lubricant that decreases friction and increases the life-span of the polishing tools and equipment, especially the disks that can melt from the extremely high temperatures.

The dry method of concrete grinding involves a tool that comes equipped with a separate-provision that retains the dust created inside a cover. This ensures no mess is left behind. In many cases. A combination of both methods is used to grind concrete to the desired and finest shine on the floors or concrete surfaces. In most cases, it is advisable to use dry grinding to start off with and then move onto wet grinding to finish and clean the areas completely.

Understanding Bonds

The most important understanding when you work with metal-bond tooling is to know what these bonds are. This is an important factor to ensure you get the very most from your tools. It is also important to understand that concrete has a variety of differences, and the main difference is the hardness. The hardness of a concrete is typically measured using either a scratch test or a PSI.

The different bonds have been designed to work with varying levels of concrete hardness. These bonds are what wear down as you are grinding to expose the diamond grits that perform the task of grinding. If you are using the incorrect bond you run the risk of burning through the tool to fast or glazing over. For this reason, ensure you are using the correct bond to match up to the hardness of the concrete.

Special Precautions

It is very important to make sure that your polishing equipment is turned off and unplugged at the wall before you change the grit-polishing disks in order to avoid the risks of a possible electrical shock. It is also important to wear the right gear. This includes long overalls, rubber boots and gloves to prevent the risk of damages or harm that can come to your legs and hands due to the dust and heat. Before you start, also check your grinding tools for any missing components, chips and noticeable cracks.

EndNote

You can always give your local Concrete Cutting Melbourne Experts for more detailed information and tips!

What is Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing?

EMC Testing Service | EMC Bayswater

What is electromagnetic compatibility testing? Let us try and explain it! Most of the today’s electrical products and electronic equipment are subjected to electromagnetic compatibility testing.

Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing is commonly known as EMC testing. In Australia, this testing is compulsory for manufacturers of certain products. This testing is necessary to demonstrate that their products are compliant with EMC standards. And is essential to meet the mandated requirements for distribution to the market.

How is Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing performed

EMC Testing | EMC Bayswater

EMC testing should be conducted by an accredited testing facility. This EMC testing laboratory should be equipped with suitably calibrated EMC test equipment and facilities. Including the appropriate calibrated EMC test chambers.

The technical capability and resources to perform the test to the applicable EMC product standard.

The testing body can be a third-party testing facility or an in-house laboratory. It ideally would be an accredited testing facility. Usually accredited by the local testing accreditation authority for the region, ideally recognised in other countries.

In Australia, EMC testing facilities are usually accredited by the local Australian authority, which is the National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA). NATA accreditation is recognised by many other countries globally. This is usually through Mutual Recognition Agreements (MRA).

NATA is part of the International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC). ILAC  promotes the acceptance of test and calibration data around the world.

Importance of EMC Testing

Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing or EMC testing is mandatory for almost all products which have an electronic or electrical circuitry whether wired or wireless powered. This is to ensure that products can function satisfactorily in the environment which they are going to be used. Furthermore, so they do not cause interference to other products.

There is a huge benefit for manufacturers in testing their products. Especially during the entire development cycle. Associated delays and costly recalls of the products can be avoided. The earlier the products can be tested for EMC compliance during the development cycle the better. A failure in the test at the end of product development cycle can be extremely costly especially in the redesigning of the product.

What types and markets require EMC Testing

Compliance with the EMC testing is mandatory in almost all markets including the U.S., Europe and Australia, among many others. This test is required for manufacturers in various industries including:

  • Medical devices;
  • Consumer products;
  • Military equipment;
  • Industrial machinery;
  • Automotive;
  • Aerospace; and
  • Railway

To be able to avoid delays in the marketing of your products, you need to properly prepare for what is needed prior to the final EMC testing. You must also allocate enough time to book an available booking at the testing laboratory, sometimes the lead time can be weeks.

You must also allow a contingency plan if the product initially does not comply. Allow time for any re-work or modifications are required i.e. compliance engineering the product to meet the standards.

Preparation for EMC Testing

It’s imperative for manufacturers to prepare the EMC testing requirements prior to entering the EMC test chamber in order to achieve the best results. Here is a helpful guide in preparing for EMC testing.

Write a test plan

Before the testing is done, it is necessary to be able to define the process beforehand. Analysing the requirements and knowing the types of test that your product needs to undergo is imperative. You need to know whether your product is subjected to conducted and radiated emissions only. Or if you will also need the EMC immunity testing as well.

You will also need to know which ports will be tested, which levels or limits will be used and what the pass and fail criteria are. That is why writing a test plan is essential.

How to write a test plan? EMC Test plan template

If you have already undergone Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing before, then you will be able to create a test plan yourself. However, if it is your first time to have an EMC test conducted, you can contact your test lab and seek a professional EMC test plan to be prepared for your particular product. A good test plan must have the following:

  • Product name, model number and identification details;
  • Product description of device to be tested including its I/O configurations and peripherals;
  • Required standards and applicable tests that are listed in the standards;
  • Quantity of samples requiring testing;
  • Product power supply requirements, i.e. 115/230VAC, 50/60Hz, 12VDC, PoE etc;
  • Dimensions of the product/system and also the weight of the product/system;
  • Type of equipment is it table top or floor standing;
  • Transmitter information if a wireless radio module is incorporated or used;
  • The lowest and highest internal frequencies used within the product;
  • Ports table including cable types, quantities, terminations and cable lengths;
  • Operating modes of the product;
  • Operating mode of the product and configuration for emissions testing (worst case);
  • Product emissions limits i.e. Class A, Class B etc (if applicable);
  • Operating mode of the product and configuration for immunity testing (worst case);
  • Declaring the intended environment, such as Basic, Industrial or Controlled EM etc;
  • EUT cycle time to complete all operations and allow observation of any failures;
  • Customer specified performance criteria and ways to recognise monitor and report failures;
  • Test fixtures, special software and supporting equipment to correctly exercise the product;
  • Definition of failure;
  • Estimated set-up time of the physical configuration and support equipment/software;
  • Declaring any health and safety related issues such as hazardous materials etc;
  • Special needs such as power, software and cooling among others;

Getting the price and schedule

Once you have the test plan written, you can now get the pricing and scheduling from an accredited 3rd party EMC test lab such as EMC Bayswater. Prepare the software and hardware for testing. You need to inquire what the lab will supply. More often than not, you will need the following:

  • Equipment under test (EUT) and spares;
  • Test fixture (if required);
  • Connectors and cables;
  • EMI suppression supplies such as ferrites, copper tape;
  • Tool kit;
  • Equipment’s design

During the test, you will need a compliance engineer or someone who is familiar with the product to witness the testing process.

Preliminary testing or pre-compliance testing

Preliminary testing or pre-compliance testing is also necessary to avoid possible failures in the final testing. There are shortened versions of the various test methods that can be done to identify possible failures.

Before the final testing, design modifications can be made. The most common pre-test that can be done is the radiated emissions pre-test. This pre-scan determines failures and suggests possible design modifications to enhance the equipment so it performs better for other test methods when needed.

Preparation prior to testing

Additionally, possible delays can be avoided if you are well prepared before the testing. Hence, when preparing your software and hardware for testing, you need to take note of the following:

  • The product that has to be tested must have its peripheral equipment included which constitute the entire system;
  • Any optional or auxiliary equipment that may be required during the test. If your product has a USB port, include a USB peripheral that can be used for that port. If you don’t ship a product with USB peripheral, then you provide a typical unit. Ensure that unit is pre-compliant to avoid failure during the test;
  • If functional auxiliary equipment for a particular port is not possible, dummy loads that exercise a port to its fullest extent will often do;
  • A monitoring method. This is crucial for immunity testing since the lab needs to monitor the performance of your product. Clearly defining methods for which you would like your product to be monitored is helpful to EMC test labs;
  • Two or more alternative backup power supply units. This is helpful whenever there’s a failure in conducted emissions testing. Conducted emissions problems can often be alleviated by swapping an external power adapter with a better performing one. Having more adapters can also be useful when doing surge testing;
  • Cables that are needed when exercising your product to the fullest. They must be the right length.
  • A software/firmware test mode that is needed when exercising all communication interfaces, memory interfaces and all moving parts at the highest speed possible; and
  • Proper documentation needed by the test engineers. This is highly important because if test engineers don’t know how to set up or operate your product into the proper test mode, it could delay in the test schedule.

Source: Courtesy of EMC Bayswater Melbourne, Australia

Taking A Photography Course – The Case For Improving Your Skills

Photography Course | Ethos CRS

Even in a time when the ability to take high-resolution photographs in digital format is literally at almost everyone’s fingertips due to the increased resolution and functionality of smartphone-based cameras there is still a need for people to hone their skills as a photographer by attending a photography course.

Composition and using light, as well as a myriad of other considerations means that exploring the potential of cameras of any type is not only fun but rewarding in a variety of other ways.

 

After all, photography provides many benefits.

Among these benefits is the fact that good photography provides timeless memories. In fact, a good photograph can confer a type of immortality to the subjects. Take a look at an old wedding album and if the photographs are of good quality they will transport you back to the occasion. Those subjects will, in a sense live forever.

Photographs document life’s journey. There is a saying that a picture is worth a thousand words. Good photography can document those milestones that we reach and that transforms us into the adults that we one day become. It can capture moments that would otherwise have been lost in the shifting currents of time. A photography course will allow the photographer to capture the essence of that particular moment.

 

One of the most rewarding things about taking up photography is that it is a fantastic stress reliever.

The sheer focus that is required to frame that perfect moment in time – with a perfect composition that captures the essence of the subject matter means that there is very little mind space available for other problems.

It is said that when we look back at the time that we truly reached adulthood it was the same time that we lost the ability to really imagine. However, photography can reignite the flame of that imagination. A great photographer is one who can harness their imagination, looking at different angles, seeing things in a new light and – in fact, looking beyond the simple image to the imagery and deeper meaning of the photograph.

There are many people who say that true happiness comes from working at something that you love. It becomes less of a task and more of an expression of passion. For those with a passion for photography, it is entirely possible to make it their life’s work. Looking around we can see examples of photography by those people who have turned their passion into a career. think of the advertising you see, think of those photo stock libraries on the Internet.

A commercial photography course can teach the aspirant commercial photographer about the best routes to take to success. However – it is the passion for photography that will determine just how fulfilling that success will be.

Photography Course | Ethos

There can be no better boost to one’s feelings of self-worth than to succeed in capturing that perfect moment.

It does not have to be a professional level photograph – even the very young can feel that boost in self-esteem when they take what is in their minds a fantastic photograph – and sharing that beauty with friends and loved ones can further enhance that feeling of self-esteem.

Some of the most beautiful photographs ever taken involve the natural world around us. One does not have to believe in a higher power – but the sheer magnificence of the world around us as captured through the lens cannot but enhance our spirituality and connection to the natural world – and the people around us.

 

Photography also gives us a new appreciation for things that might otherwise have escaped our notice.

 

Framing a photograph at once booths allow for unrivaled focus, but also ensures that the photographer begins to notice the components of each individual scene. The play of light and shadow, the importance of what is happening on the periphery of any shot. All of these open our eyes to the myriad of wonders that make up our world.

Taking a photography course will enhance every aspect of a photographers chosen pastime. It is immensely valuable and also opens up new experiences and new techniques that keep photography evergreen for those with a passion for the image.

Why Do You Need A Kayak Anchor Trolley?

Kayak Trolley | Boat Hoist

A kayak anchor trolley helps the fishermen or angler to easily adjust the tie-down location of the anchor on his vessel. You can easily pull the anchor up by letting the tie-down move toward the angler. The angler has total control of the process when anchoring in any type of water thanks to the kayak trolley. That is why you need to invest in a kayak anchor trolley without delay. It is much cheaper than you would have thought.

Here is why you need a kayak trolley for successful fishing trips in the long run.

The anchor trolley is a pulley system made with ropes in order to establish a quick tie-down location anywhere on the body of the kayak. The average angler will travel with a 3×3 1/2 pound anchor. The nature of a kayak is such that an angler requires easy access to everything in his vessel. That is where an anchor trolley comes in handy. It provides a very convenient way of setting and adjusting the position of the anchor to the best spot of the kayak. Here is how a kayak trolley works:

Kayak Trolley | Boat Hoist. First, you need to attach two eye loops to one side of the hull of the kayak. It should be roughly the length of the kayak.

. Then, a long rope should be fed through these two loops. Each end of the rope should be tied to a metal ring that connects the rope together. This should visually form a long and thin oval on the side of the hull of your kayak.

. The angler is in a position to slide the ring to either the stern or the bow. Anywhere he prefers the anchor line to be set. Next, clip the anchor line to the metal ring on the trolley using the clip that is attached to the anchor line. Now you can drop the anchor off the side of the hull. The angler could adjust the anchor line however he prefers.

There are many reasons to invest in an anchor trolley. In fact, the product is quite affordable compared to the benefits it offers. Whether you fish in a lake, pond, or any other type of current, there are times when you want to move from your spot. But when you are in the middle of the action, it is not the best time to shift to a different location. Tying the anchor off to a specific location on the kayak won’t work.

That is because of the size of the kayak and the direction that your current will carry you. The anchor trolley helps the angler control the location of the tie off – which helps optimize the position of your vessel. This type of flexibility is essential when you are fishing. That is why a kayak trolley is the best product for any fishermen on a kayak.

There are different types and brands of anchor trolley on the market. Most of these products are available for a price below $40. Although there are many products out there, all of them are not suitable for your kayak. Make sure to pick the right product that suits your vessel. YakGear’s Deluxe Kayak Anchor Trolley kit is one of the best kayak trolleys on the market today. But you will find a couple of good offerings on Amazon.

Make sure that you do the research properly when shopping for the best product on the market. Amazon is the best e-commerce store to purchase a quality kayak trolley because they are trustworthy and professional in their approach to marketing. You can reveal your credit card information without any worry since Amazon uses a secure payment gateway. That is why you should shop for the best anchor trolley on Amazon.

You can add more control to your vessel by installing a high-quality and affordable kayak anchor trolley. It provides a host of benefits that you won’t regret later on. Anchoring becomes much easier with the right anchor trolley. Make sure that you do the research when shopping for the right product that suits your kayak. The above read offers information on why you need a kayak trolley.            

How to Do Your Own Formal Makeup

Formal Makeup - Perth | AG Makeup

With the formal season fast approaching, you have two make up choices. You can have professional formal makeup done or you can apply it yourself. If you choose to have it done professionally, the cost can be relatively exorbitant, however, the results will be worth it when you see yourself in photos or on social media.

You can save money simply by doing formal makeup yourself. It is not impossible. The steps below will help you get professional-looking results. If Kate Middleton could do her own makeup for her royal wedding, then you can do yours for your prom, wedding or another special spring event.

When you choose to do it yourself, you have complete control over the finished look.

 

Choose your dress and your hairstyle first.

Once this is done, you can figure out where to start with your makeup. You can also decide if you should get a fake tan or not. You might choose to go natural and allow your true skin tone to shine. This choice will dictate what foundation tones you use for your makeup.

Brows can make the biggest difference in one’s appearance. Choose whether you will have your microblade, waxed or left natural for the big event. Next, decide whether you will highlight your eyes or your lips.

Some suggestions for this include choosing to accentuate your eyes with smokey tones or earth tones. These colors are classic and will not go out of style anytime soon. You will look beautiful in your photos for generations. If you accent your eyes, use a neutral or clear-gloss for your lips. If you choose to highlight your lips, choose colors that compliment your dress and your skin tone.

You may also want to look at your favorite celebrities recent looks. This will give you ideas for your perfect formal makeup. Now, all you need to do is go out or go online and buy your cosmetics and tools.

If you are going to be sporting a fake tan, buy bronzers, powder and foundation about two shades darker than you normally would. Be careful about choosing the right type of foundation. If your skin is dry, an oil-based foundation will be best and your coverage will last without caking. If your skin is oily, a water-based foundation is ideal.

 

Do not forget to choose a primer or a beauty balm.

This will give the rest of your makeup the right base for the big day.

Do some research online and on YouTube for techniques and suggestions for doing your makeup to perfection. Pay careful attention to tutorials that offer suggestions for using primers and for applying foundation. Beauty blenders or brushes are excellent for applying these smoothly and professionally for lasting, flawless finish. Concealer is also important but many professionals actually apply this after applying the foundation to cover imperfections and add tone to your skin.

 

Before the big day, assemble your tools and makeup.

Get ready for a trial makeup run. The more you practice, the more you will acquire the skills needed to apply your makeup on the big day with confidence.

You will also get an idea of how much time you need to complete your look. This is important so that you can schedule your formal makeup application on the big day with plenty of time to spare. You do not want to have to rush, and you do not want to have to stress on this important day.

 

Do a trial run of your makeup.

Take note of how long it took you and assess the look. Are there any changes you might want to make? Are there any techniques you need to practice more? Or, perhaps you may want to change the tone of your eyeshadows.

Perth Formal Makeup | AG Makeup

Take a photo or two of yourself.

This is a great way to see just how you will look on the big day.

Choosing to do your own formal makeup is a real possibility. It will save you money and give you much more control over the look you have for this important day in your life. You will look stunning for many years to come in all your photos.

 

Endnote

If you really need help you can always contact your local formal makeup experts.